Assessment Item 5 – Part B – Critical Comparison

As a teacher turned librarian, this subject was a mere formality, an update to prepare myself for return to the workforce. I predicted ETL401 as a simple focus on technologies and perhaps an analysis of information seeking behaviours of students – easy marks! Needless to say, the first iceberg graphic required for analysis (Combes, 2013a) quickly jolted my shallow predictions and so began the unravelling of my current perceptions and a reinvention of my professional identity.

Deconstructing stereotypes

Online learning journal (OLJ) entries show that I was ill informed and driven by stereotypes when considering the role of teacher librarian (TL) (OLJ, May 5, 2013). Previous experience had lead me to understand TLs as introverted, isolated (Fourie, 2004) and without a teaching component. Despite collaboration being considered excellent TL practice (Herring, 2007; Eisenberg, 2008; Kuhlthau & Maniotes, 2010; Lamb & Johnson, 2012), I was not familiar with the concept. Anxiety grew – the thought of collaborating with some of my previous colleagues seemed impossible. More than comfortable with their professional arrangement (OLJ, April 25, 2013), the thought that a TL could support classroom teachers in the design of innovative curriculum that embedded information literacy (Combes, 2012) seemed preposterous.

I will be honest, I cried. For me, doom was on the horizon – I was holding tight to tweed skirts, and working in isolation – and I liked covering books! (Luthman, 2007). However, as my reading widened, it became obvious that I was drawing from a narrow range of past experiences and making inaccurate judgements about the modern role of the TL (Hartzell, 2002).

 The role of TL – a slippery concept.

I found it difficult to pin point the role of a TL. I grappled with the concept of professional identity (Doskatch, 2003) which had been clear when I was purely a classroom teacher. Not currently employed within a school library, I spoke with various school librarians to gain authentic insight (OLJ, March 11, 2013) and discovered that each had a unique role depending on context although I was able to glean some common aspects. It was obvious that the role of TL is complex and at base level involves teaching generic skills across the curriculum as well as information literacy and literacy skills development (Coatney, 2008).

The unpredictable nature of the TL role does not seem so daunting if a written policy is established to guide practice and provide a clear framework. As well as articulating job role and the place of the library within the school (Combes, 2008), policies help provide consistent services (Sanders, 2004) and provide a focus for developing goals that align with the school’s mission (Combes, 2008).

Identifying and confronting fears

The concept of collaboration was a foreign concept to me. My past employers were very traditional in approach and my colleagues viewed inquiry based learning as a chance for discipline issues to arise (OLJ, April 25, 2013). With regard to teaching practice, there had been no change of method for many years and any suggestion of doing so was resisted. Sanders (2004, p.16), encourages professionals to recognise why such resistance might occur. Regarding my previous situations, teachers may have felt their status, expertise (Sanders, 2004) or autonomy was threatened (Hartzell, 2003) and thus were not welcoming of any assistance or support from the TL.

Accessing Hartzell (2003) was a pivotal point concerning my professional development.  This author presented strategies that empower the TL when dealing with resistant characters. For example, techniques for communicating effectively would hopefully reduce resistance to change. In such environments, it will take time and commitment to reshape perceptions however with Hartzell’s plan of attack, I feel well equipped to cope with organisational politics (which I had previously avoided) and able to contribute to the school by working smarter, not harder. 

The principal – key to success

Staff can hardly be expected to embrace change if the principal himself does not value or see the contribution of the TL. Time again, the literature stresses the support of the principal as imperative to the success of any library program (Oberg, 1995; Hartzell, 2003; Haycock 2007; McGuinness, 2011) and without the support of this powerful sponsor the value of a qualified TL will be overlooked during budget and staff allocation (Hartzell, 2003). Sadly, TLs suffer from ‘occupational invisibility’ (Hartzell, 2003, p.7) therefore it is imperative that people perceive the TL as making a significant contribution to the accomplishment of the School’s goals and student learning outcomes (Combes, 2012).

I had stated that I did not believe that TLs were an endangered species (OLJ, March 12, 2013) although on reflection, I would now flip my answer. Drawing on previous experience, some TLs do not market themselves effectively and resulting in principals hiring librarians or aides rather than qualified TLs as a cost cutting decision (Combes, 2013b).  Although a TL may contribute significantly to the core business of a school, they will not be treated as an equal partner in curriculum design and teaching of students (Combes, 2013b) unless key players are aware of their effort, value and contribution.

This subject has been a difficult journey. Deconstructing stereotypes and confronting my behaviour of avoiding certain characters in the workplace was challenging. Even so, I have drawn on the literature to inform my role and practice as TL and establish a palette of techniques that I may keep for future reference.



Coatney, S. (2008). Library media specialist – Not a good job for the faint of heart. Teacher      Librarian, 35(3), 57.

Combes, B. (2008). Challenges for teacher librarianship in the 21st century: Part 2 – Time and workload. Schools Catalogue information service: Connections, 67. Retrieved from““`anship_pt_2.html

Combes, B. (2012). Practical curriculum opportunities and the library catalogue. In Schools Catalogue Information Service: Connections, 82. Retrieved from

Combes, B. (2013a). The internet and the WWW. [iceberg web graphic]. Retrieved from

Combes, B. (2013b, April 4). Pulling it all together [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Doskatch, I. (2003). Perceptions and perplexities of the faculty librarian partnership: an Australian perspective. Reference Services Review, 31(2), 111-121.

Eisenberg, M.B. (2008). Information literacy: Skills for the information age. DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology, 28(2), 39-47.

Fourie, I. (2004). Librarians and the claiming of new roles: how can we try to make a difference? Aslib Proceedings, 56(1), 62-74.

Hartzell, G. (2002). The principal’s perceptions and teacher-librarians. School Libraries Worldwide. 8(1), 92-110.

Hartzell, G.N. (2003). Building influence for the school librarian: Tenet, targets and tactics. (2nd ed.). Worthington, Ohio: Linworth Publishing.

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical success factors for student learning. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 25-35.

Herring, J. (2007). Teacher librarians and the school library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.). Libraries in the twenty-first century: Charting new directions in information. (pp. 27-42). Wagga Wagga, NSW: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.

Kuhlthau, C.K. & Maniotes, L.K. (2010). Building guided inquiry teams for 21st-century learners. School Library Monthly, XXVI(5), 18-21.

Lamb, A. & Johnson, L. (2012). Overview: The school library media specialist. In Eduscapes. Retrieved from

Lancaster, R. (2013, April 25). Implementing guided inquiry. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Lancaster, R. (2013, April 25). Collaboration: The accepted norm? [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Lancaster, R. (2013, March 11). The role of teacher librarian: Professional statements. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

 Lancaster, R. (2013, March 12). Topic 2: The school librarian, an endangered species?. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Luthman, A. (2007). Librarians, professionalism and image: Stereotype and reality. Library Review, 56(9), 773-780.

McGuinness, C. (2011). Becoming confident teachers: A guide for academic librarians. Oxford: Chandas Publishing.

Oberg, D. (2007). Taking the library out of the library into the school. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(2), i-ii.

Sanders, R. (2004). Australian library supervision and management (2nd ed.). Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University Centre for Information Studies.

How do we do it all?

Certainly, the TL can take on more than is manageable. As a teacher and library manager, it is easy to become caught up in the emergencies that present throughout the day – even if they do not concern the TL. For example, last minute unplanned lesson by a teacher, broken computers, re-shelving out of hand and so on. It may seem that there is no chance of ever reaching the core tasks of the TL which are achieving learning outcomes.

How to decide on allocated time

All plans and roles of the TL will differ according to context however the TL has to get tough, pin pointing their exact role and what jobs need doing. They must be realistic and decide what they will tolerate when giving away their time. This would involve turning away unorganised teachers or persisting with maintenance crews about broken equipment.

The ability to delegate and preserve sanity

In this activity, I’m assuming there is at least one teacher aide assigned to the library therefore some housekeeping tasks can be assigned to this person and the TL can take a monitoring role. The TL can then prioritise tasks that need attention and then they may concentrate on their role as a planner, manager, support to teachers and providing resources to promote learning. Prioritising can involve staff, empowering them with responsibility.

Collaboration – the accepted norm?

In my experience, I have found collaborating between the TL, principal and teachers non-existent. Many of the teachers in this environment were male, over 50 years and had exceptional classroom management skills – in a traditional sense. As we near the end of this course, I reflect back on this time and realised I was very lonely. Not for friendship with these people (yawn!) but for professional exchange or collaboration. It would have been lovely to team teach with the librarian (who knew every resource location within the school) or enhance my lessons with new perspectives from experienced teachers however I was isolated. Rules were strict, only two library periods per week and staff were never permitted to approach the principal (only the heads of department). It wasn’t until reading Hartzell (2003) that I realised that this environment was unhealthy and certainly not conducive to learning – for teachers or students. Hartzell’s advice on organizational politics would have come in handy back then although I’m not sure Hartzell fully addresses schools where it is the norm to teach in isolation – really old schools, based upon prestige, heritage and wealth. I suppose I could have played the helpless female role so others may have a reason to collaborate however that would defeat the purpose of an equal partnership in instruction.

A friend once said to me, ‘all empires will fall, you just have to know where to push’ although how does one young female tackle such an ethos or empire supported by ‘old boys’, parents and of course the principal (whom I only ever saw from a distance). Lamb (2011, p. 30) warns that collaboration requires a supportive atmosphere and it may take time for some teachers make a shift in thinking of the TL as an instructional partner. And I wish I could say that I remained on staff and attempted to promote that shift in thinking but I did not – I left and to this day the school remains the same.



Hartzell, G.N. (2003). Building influence for the school librarian: Tenet, targets and tactics.(2nd ed.). Worthington, Ohio: Linworth Publishing.

Lamb, A. (2011). Bursting with potential: Mixing a media specialist’s palette. TechTrends, 55(4), 27-36.



Information Literacy: more than a set of skills (Blog Task #3)

On consulting widely accepted definitions of information literacy (IL) (Abilock, 2004), one might initially form the opinion that the term is primarily concerned with skills. Verbs such as find, evaluate and use (Abilock, 2004) suggest a mastery of these skills would produce information literate individuals.  However, a more thorough analysis of the literature shows that IL runs deeper than mere skills or an ability to use these skills within the confines of a school library.

Reaching past the mastery of skills, the process or practice of IL (Herring, 2011) is transformational and can be enhanced as an individual proceeds through life if the individual remains open to learning (Bruce, 2004). The skills of IL are utilised although firstly the user must recognise when information is needed – an ability to know how to learn (Kuhlthau, 2004).

It is easy to reduce IL to a set of specific skills such as computer or research skills however this view carries consequences. IL is not a short term practice and is associated with successful lifelong learners – not confined to library experiences. To narrow down IL to specific skills would result in students lacking the necessary preparation when encountering new technology or environments.  For example, teaching IL skills specific to the library catalogue or print-based resources does not prepare students for potential information environments in future educational or workforce areas (Lloyd, 2005).

In considering these views, it would seem that the suggestion of IL as a skill-set is a shallow view. Certainly, there are specific skills needed, however students must be exposed to a spectrum of experiences (Abilock, 2004) that enable them to extend these skills beyond simply finding and evaluating to recognising feelings, information gaps and a positive attitude to lifelong learning (Kuhlthau, 2004).

More recently, the term ‘transliteracy’ (TL) may replace IL (Ipri, 2010).This concept does not originate from the library realm and is considered to provide learners with everything IL does however tends to highlight transferrable skills rather than teaching tools (Ipri, 2010). Although a relatively new concept, many information professionals feel that TL is another buzz word and that IL was never primarily concerned with just teaching tools or a basic set of skills (Iris, 2012) but also covered transferrable skills.

However one chooses to view IL, the outcome of becoming information literate is an essential quality one must obtain to fully participate as a digital citizen. Those who exist in an information society must be equipped to make intelligent and informed choices rather than consume resources without critical question.  Those with such abilities and attitudes will be able to participate fully in various scenarios presented in an overloaded information landscape.



Abilock, D. (2004). Information literacy: an overview of design, process and outcomes. Retrieved from

Bruce, C. (2004, 13-16 June). Information Literacy as a Catalyst for Educational Change. [Paper presented at International Lifelong Learning Conference, Yeppoon]. Retrieved from

Herring, J. (2011). Assumptions, Information Literacy and Transfer in High Schools. Teacher Librarian, 38(3), 32-36.

Ipri, T. (2010). Introducing transliteracy: What does it mean to academic libraries? C&RL News, 532-533.

Iris (2012). Inflammatory Statement: transliteracy is Information Literacy for latecomers. In Pegasus Librarian. Retrieved from

Kuhlthau, C. C. (2004). Learning as a process. In Seeking meaning a process approach to library and information services (2nd ed.) (pp. 13-27). Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.

Lloyd, A. 2005. No man (or woman) is an island: information literacy, affordances and communities of practice. Australian Library Journal, 54(3). Retrieved from

Implementing guided inquiry

Based on the Information Search Process (ISP) (Kuhlthau & Maniotes, 2010), the TL collaborates with classroom teachers to guide students through the inquiry process. The majority of the literature supports such a process and advantages of implementing a guided inquiry (GI) process would include students developing independence, higher order thinking skills, information fluency and teachers having various opportunities to gather evidence of student learning throughout the process (Fitzgerald, 2011). Despite such advantage, the TL would also face disadvantages during implementation.

GI requires a team approach to learning (Sherman, 2011; Herring, 2011) and this requires time, careful planning and willing parties. Some classroom teachers may view this newly implemented process as an increase in workload. Also, some teachers’ struggle with the concept of student trust and freedom. In my experience, ‘old school’ teachers liken this approach to losing control and encouraging poor classroom discipline.


Fitzgerald, L. (2011). The twin purposes of Guided Inquiry: Guiding student inquiry and evidence based practice. Scan, 30(1), 26-41.

Herring, J.E. (2011). Improving students’ web use and informaton literacy: A guide for teachers and teacher librarians. London: Facet Publishing.

Kuhlthau, C.K. & Maniotes, L.K. (2010). Building guided inquiry teams for 21st-century learners. School Library Monthly, XXVI(5), 18-21.

 Sheerman, A. (2011). Accepting the challenge: Evidence based practice at Broughton Anglican College. Scan, 30(2), 24-33.

Principal Support – Blog Task #2

One way to gain Mr Principal’s attention.

Why does a TL need the support of the principal?

Strictly speaking the principal of any school is predominately concerned with student achievement and funding (Farmer, 2007). Of course it helps if they are a nicely natured individual, however a TL must not forget that as principal they are held accountable for all aspects of school management and have no choice but to cull programs and positions that are viewed as lacking in contribution. Oberg (2006) describes the principal as an ‘enabler’ as they hold the power to provide budget support and additional staff thus ensuring the make or break of the TL (Hartzell, 2003).

How does the TL gain the support of the principal?

Organizational politics are common within all workplaces and schools are no exception (Hartzell, 2003). The TL must work smartly to promote the library as a vital resource to students and teachers – worthy of a place within the budget. This work must be visible, aligned with whole school goals and provide a service/support to teachers (Oberg, 2007) and then promoted and advertised. As well as making the principal look good, the attention will highlight the value of the library and the contribution the TL is making to organisational goals. Without such attention, school administration are not aware of the significant value of the TL (Haycock, 2007).

What are the consequences if TLs do not play ball?

It is impossible for modern TLs to operate in isolation and will face major challenges in doing so. To exist only within the confines of the library is begging for qualified TLs to be overlooked by powerful sponsors and consequently excluded from the school budget. Principals are now being asked to achieve more with less financial support (Farmer, 2007) and a TL who is not utilised will be replaced perhaps by a librarian or teacher aide – costing less and without a teaching qualification (Combes, 2013). This lack of curriculum knowledge would mean collaborative planning (Haycock, 2007), guided inquiry and higher order thinking tasks would not be conducted sufficiently.


Combes, B. (2013, April 4). Pulling it all together [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Farmer, L. (2007). Principals: Catalysts for collaboration. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 56-65. Retrieved from

Hartzell, G.N. (2003). Building influence for the school librarian: Tenet, targets and tactics. (2nd ed.). Worthington, Ohio: Linworth Publishing.

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical success factors for student learning. School Libraries Worldwide, 13 (1), 25-35.

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13-18.

Oberg, D. (2007). Taking the library out of the library into the school. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(2), i-ii.

TL and Curriculum Development

What is an appropriate role for the TL in curriculum development?

Having qualifications in both areas of education and information science, the TL is well placed to participate and an equal partner when planning school curriculum. As an instructional partner, the TL  supports teachers in the design and delivery of curriculum that is underpinned with information literacy and literacy skills.

What benefits can a school obtain from the active involvement of the TL in curriculum development?

As well as a supportive role, the TL is familiar with learning technologies, delivery modes and electronic resources and able to make suggestions to support the whole school curriculum with relevant resources. Further, involving the TL will ensure that the school learning goals are aligned with the library thus ensuring a united approach in achieve student learning outcomes

Should a principal expect that teachers would plan units of work with the TL?

As an educator and information manager, the TL is a valuable resource that would benefit classroom teachers. Thus it would not be unreasonable for the principal to expect the TL to plan collaboratively. However, if a librarian or library technician (who does not hold a teaching qualification) has been employed to cut costs, then the employee is not trained to engage in curriculum planning with classroom teachers and therefore should not be expected to complete such a task.

How are students disadvantaged in schools that exclude the TL from curriculum development?

The presence of a qualified TL within a school relates strongly to student achievement given that the TL is trained to provide resources that are relevant to and enhance the curriculum which facilitates learning. Students are disadvantaged if a TL is excluded from planning as the learning experiences that would otherwise be authentic and encourage independent learning  would perhaps fail to teach critical and higher order thinking skills.

Making priorities clear & palatable

Schools libraries are dynamic places and a TL’s priorities firstly need to be pin-pointed before communitcating with the school community. Thorough planning of priorities requires the TL to be realistic about what can be achieved given the current context and resources.

Having up-to-date operational plans that clearly outline the goals of the library will minimise confusion and illustrate to staff where the library can enhance their teaching and planning. The principal is also able to easily observe the direction the library plans to take as well as how the library  fits in with the school’s overall strategic plan and learning outcomes.

Communication is perhaps one of the most essential factors to ensure the TL has to develop acceptance from the school community. Collaboration with staff should be positive and it be obvious that the TL can provide curriculum support. Promoting the acheivements and resources of the library at staff meetings and information evenings.

Blog Task #1

The role of TL in practice with regard to assessing information literacy and inquiry learning

Information literacy and inquiry learning are slippery concepts and there are various attempts to pin down solid definitions and debate regarding which skills indicate that an individual is indeed information literate (Abilock, 2004, p. 1; Bundy, 2004, p. 3; Doyle, 1994, p. 40 cited Herring, 2007, p. 33). Considering this, it is not surprising that educators find an inquiry process confronting and assessing information literacy skills difficult (Langford, 1998). At this point, a teacher librarian (TL) can play a vital support role and potentially collaborate with teachers to find effective measures to assess the ‘elusive nature’ of information literacy skills (Mueller, 2008, p. 18) and create opportunities for ongoing assessment during the complex inquiry process (Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari, 2007, p. 3).

Given that inquiry is not sequential, there are many models available to scaffold the process (Bond, 2011). These models or frameworks recognise that inquiry is not a linear process (Kuhlthau et al, 2007, p. 2) and provide suitable structures to develop information literacy in all curriculum areas. Some models available include the PLUS model (Herring, 2004 cited in Herring, 2007, p. 33), The Big 6 (Eisenberg and Berkowitz, 1990; Eisenberg and Berkowitz, 2012), the Information Search Process (ISP) (Kuhlthau, 1991; Kuhlthau et al, 2007). Each of these models may be slightly different however they all include similar stages in the inquiry process (Lupton, 2012). The TL may be responsible for assessing potential models for implementation within the school and providing training to classroom teachers. For example, the Information Process model (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2007) and Information Literacy Planning Overview (ILPO) (Ryan & Capra, 2001) are perhaps the most widely used models in Australia (Herring, 2007, p. 33; Lupton, 2012) however classroom teachers may still require the TL to deliver in-service training and examples showing how to integrate the model into their planning of assessment.

Inquiry outcomes and information literacy skills can be broad and goals are often ‘nebulous’ (Mueller, 2008, p. 18) thus it would seem sensible to adopt a team approach (Kuhlthau et al, 2007) to share the workload of collecting assessment data throughout the process (Kuhlthau et al, 2007; Stripling, 2007). Reflecting on previous experience, it was not usual practice to collaborate with a TL when planning inquiry based assessment items. Consequently, without such involvement, students’ information literacy skills were overlooked and not adequately assessed (Mueller, 2008). Perhaps in such situations ‘curriculum mapping’ (Pappas, 2007, p. 21) would enable collaboration between education professionals and connections of information literacy standards and curriculum content.

Although the TL or ‘library media specialist’ (Mueller, 2005, p. 14) is experienced with integrating information literacy and inquiry based learning (Combes, 2013), Mueller (2005, p. 14) warns that it is not always easy to convince teachers that there is an over reliance on traditional assessment and information literacy skills are better evaluated using ‘authentic assessment’. TLs can devise rubrics (Mueller, 2005; Brown, 2008) and checklists of observable behaviours (Stripling, 2007, p. 27) to assist classroom teachers however a TL is able to thoroughly assess information skills or ‘information fluency’ (Stripling, 2006; Stripling, 2007: 25) during all phases of the particular inquiry model (Mueller, 2008). Further, Kuhlthau et al (2007, p. 6) discuss that the TL is ‘uniquely positioned’ to provide educators with meaningful and long term feedback regarding achievement of curriculum and learning outcomes. TLs form a relationship with students from grade to grade and are therefore is able to monitor progress and achievement over a number of years.


Abilock, D. (2004). Information literacy: An overview of design, process and outcomes. In Teacher resources: 21st century literacies. Retrieved from

Bond, T. (2011). Information literacy models and inquiry learning models. Retieved from

Brown, C.A. (2008). Building rubrics: A step-by-step process. Library Media Connection. Retrieved from

Bundy, A. (ed.). (2004). Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: Principles, standards and practice. 2nd ed. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL) and Council of Australian University Libraries (CAUL). Retrieved from CSU Reserve.

Combes, B. (2013). Introduction to teacher librarianship [ETL401 Modules: Topic 4 – Information literacy: Guided inquiry]. Retrieved from Charles Sturt University website:

Eisenberg, M. & Berkowitz, R. (1990). Information problem-solving: The big six skills approach to library and information skills instruction. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Eisenberg, M. & Berkowitz, R. (2012). The big 6. Retrieved from

Herring, J. (2007). Teacher librarians and the school library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century : Charting new directions in information (pp. 27-42). Wagga Wagga, NSW : Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University. Retrieved from CSU Reserve.

Kuhlthau, C. (1991). Inside the search process: Information seeking from the users’ perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42 (5), 361-371. Retrieved from EBSCO Business Source Complete.

Kuhlthau, C, Maniotes, L. & Caspari, A. (2007). Guided inquiry: Learning in the 21st century. Wesport: Libraries Unlimited.

Langford, L. (1998). Information literacy: A clarification. In From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal. Retrieved from

Lupton, M. (2012). Inquiry skills in the Australian curriculum. Access, 26 (2), 12-18. Retrieved from Informit Humanities and Social Sciences Collection.

Mueller, J. (2005). Authentic assessment in the classroom…and the library media center. Library Media Connection, 23 (7), 14-18. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.

Mueller, J. (2008). Assessing skill development. Library Media Connection, 27 (3), 18-20. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.

New South Wales Department of Education and Training. (2007). Information skills in the school: Engaging learners in constructing knowledge. In School libraries and information literacy unit curriculum K-12 Directorate. Retrieved from

Pappas, M.L. (2007). Tools for the assessment of learning. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 23 (9), 21-25. Retrieved from CSU Library Reserve.

Stripling, B. (2007). Assessing  informative fluency: Gathering evidence of student learning. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 23 (8), 25-29. Retrieved from CSU Library Reserve.

Stripling, B. (2010). What is assessment and why should the school librarian be involved

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. Massachusetts School Library Association, Assessment: The AASL Fall Forum. Retrieved from

Ryan, J. & Capra, S. (2001). Information Literacy Planning for Educators: The ILPO Approach. School Libraries Worldwide, 2001, 7(1), 1-10. Retrieved from Proquest.